battle of cynoscephalae summary

The Antigonids are frequently referred to as “Macedonians” and sometimes just as “Greeks.” Those descriptors are accurate. Philip seized the opportunity to strike a secret pact with the Seleucid (another Successor dynasty) King Antiochus III to seize the territory of the child King Ptolemy. We also know that Rome's Aetolian Greek allies sent them 400 cavalry and 6,000 infantry, while the Athamanian Greeks sent 1,200 infantry. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (June 197) became famous because Roman legions, commanded by Titus Quinctius Flamininus (the portrait is from the museum of Delphi) defeated king Philip V‘s Macedonian phalanx.The army that had once been the best in the world and had defeated Persian kings, Indian raja’s, and Sogdian nomads, now had to recognize that the legions were better. Normally, the left hand projected past the shield rim, allowing the phalangite to wield the pike with both hands. NOTE: Livy says they dropped their pikes and charged with swords, and is widely believed to have mistranslated Polybius. The superior impact/solidity of the double-depth phalanx, and momentum imparted by the downhill charge gave Philip the advantage, and he drove the Romans back down the ridge toward their camp. Cynoscephalae synonyms, Cynoscephalae pronunciation, Cynoscephalae translation, English dictionary definition of Cynoscephalae. battle of Cynoscephalae [the ~] noun Related Definitions for "battle of Cynoscephalae": the battle that ended the second Macedonian War (197 BC); the Romans defeated Philip V … 4.) The battle on the hills grew fierc… His worries about the Rising power of Rome. The Romans would have deployed their troops in a triplex acies of three lines—the hastati (green/young men), the principes (more veteran troops), and finally the triarii (hardened veterans). If you're following along with Myke, make sure you catch up on his last blog posts: Entry #1: Meet Author Myke Cole as He Blogs His Trip to Greece to Research "Legion vs. Phalanx", Entry #2: Myke Cole's Reading List: The Battles of Cynoscephalae, Thermopylae, and Pydna, Entry #5: Visiting the Aemilius Paulus Monument with Myke Cole. Val van het West-Romeinse Rijk, Burgeroorlog tussen Antonius en Octavianus, https://nl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Slag_bij_Cynoscephalae_(197_v.Chr. But enough waxing eloquent on Greece. Death of Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epophanes Antichus III the Great Philip V of Macedonia For the phalanx is like an animal of invincible strength as long as it is one body and can keep its shields locked together in a single formation; but when it has been broken up into The Antigonid left, not properly formed up, or deployed into phalanx didn't even bother to try to fight. It was a close-run, see-sawing fight, a study in the kind of chaos that truly tests the ingenuity of individual commanders and soldiers. Enter your email address below to sign up to our General newsletter for updates from Osprey Publishing, Osprey Games and our parent company Bloomsbury. The three lines would deploy in a checkboard (quincunx) pattern, with the each line covering the intervals of the line in front. The war had been triggered by Philip V of Macedonia’s attempts to extend his kingdom into Asia Minor and the Aegean. We got to spend the day seeing the ancient city of Dion, where Alexander the Great sacrificed before launching on his expedition into Asia, and we also toured the battlefield of Cynoscephalae, which is one of the battles covered in Legion vs. Phalanx. The battle of Cynoscephalae was a turning point in military history. 7.) The Roman legionaries also wore a complete panoply. The fullest recent treatment of the battle is NGL Hammond’s ‘The campaign and Battle of Cynoscephalae 197 BC, JHS, V 108 (1988) 60-62. I’m writing this from the balcony of the Hotel Titagion in the mountains of Agrafa. © 2017 Osprey Publishing Limited. 8.) Roman Macedonian Where in Thessaly? Philip's chastisement and Aetolian resentment laid the groundwork for the Roman-Seleucid War of 192 B.C., the Aetolian War of 191 B.C. Command and Control (C2) would have been largely centralized in the monarchical Antigonid phalanx, resulting in a rigid force designed to deploy once and hold position thereafter. In 204, the Ptolemaic king Ptolemy IV Philopator died, leaving behind a very young successor, Ptolemy V Epiphanes. How did the war start? command was taken up by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, a commander of real energy, if not genius, who drastically altered the course of events. We can agree with Livy's assessment that Antias exaggerates, as, even if those were combined casualties, it would mean the utter annihilation of both armies. Flamininus shadowed the Antigonid king, hoping to force a decisive battle when the ground was suitable. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 2 mrt 2020 om 16:58. All Rights Reserved. He also had to scuttle his navy. Cynoscephalae, (Greek: “Dogs’ Heads”), ancient range of hills in Thessaly, Greece, 7 miles (11 km) west of modern Vólos. 197 BC. Livy and Polybius agree that 8,000 Antigonids were killed and 5,000 captured. Need a translated version? As Philip arrived on the ridge summit, he saw his covering force, driven to retreat by the Roman covering force, now reinforced by the main Roman left. By force of arms it would now give way to the highly trained and disciplined Roman Legion, which would now dominate the … 9.) The last line would be armed with a thrusting spear. Let me bring you up to speed on the Battle of Cynoscephalae. Cynoscephalae was the first battle in the campaign of Roman imperialism against Macedonia and the eastern Mediterranean. Battle of Cynoscephalae. This website uses cookies to provide all of its features. Today, we ventured south and west into the ridges and hills surrounding the Karadag range in Thessaly where the famous Battle of Cynoscephalae was fought in 197 B.C. Map Description Historical Map of the Battle of Cynoscephalae 197 BC . Pritchett in 1969, and N.G.L. Our literary sources for Cynoscephalae are comparatively good when you consider the general state of ancient material. Philip fled to Tempe, where he recovered as many survivors as he could. Show area … Philip responded by dispatching his Thessalian and Macedonian cavalry, as well as all his mercenaries (except the Thracians) to reinforce his own troops. For 300 years cavalry used in concert with the spear phalanx had dominated Western battlefields. I'm enjoying it very much! The Romans went on to loot the Antigonid camp, only to find that the Aetolians had beat them to it, in a possible foreshadowing of hostilities to come between Rome and the Aetolian league. The Battle of Cynoscephalae was an accidental engagement, with neither general ready for, nor desiring a pitched battle, fought over terrain that suited neither side. Just at this time the Rhodians determined to win back from him the district on the mainland known as Peraea, which had been held by their forefathers. 6.) The cavalry would be deployed on the flanks and the skirmishers out front in a screen. The initial meeting of the covering forces supposedly took place on top of this ridge, with both forces sending panicked messengers back to their commanders pleading for aid. The Antigonids would ideally deploy their phalanx in four strategia (brigades) in a line, with the most veteran units to the right (likely the peltasts). Justinus discusses the battle in his Epitome of the Philippic Histories, and mention is also made in the Chronicle of Eusebius and in Orosius' History Against the Pagans. Phase I. Illustrating. This done, Philip marched half his army over the ridge to deliver what he believed to be a finishing blow. Once he was sure the battle was lost, he escaped. The battle of Cynoscephalae Weapons they used What? Between them lay a ridge of low hills named "Dog-Heads," in Greek—Cynoscephalae. A strap around the shoulders, the ochane, helped support the shield's weight. Battle of Cynoscephalae:For the earlier battle fought here, see Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC). Livy goes on to criticize the Roman annalist Quintus Claudius Quadrigarius, who also exaggerates the casualties at 32,000 killed and 4,300 captured. There was a chance encounter between the advance groups of both armies at the summit near the pass. The countryside shifted gradually, more hostile to the Antigonids, more friendly to Rome. The exact composition of this force isn't clear, but Polybius indicates that at least some of the troops were Aetolian. Cause: Philip trying to expand kingdom. Two hills of southeast Thessaly in northeast Greece. 3.) The Romans also fielded twenty war elephants, with their attendant crews. We’re not here on vacation. Rome's crisis of command had the Second Macedonian War off to a bad start, and there was every indicator that it would mimic the First in an end not particularly favorable to Rome. The combat engaged about 26,000 men on each side. For two hundred years the Macedonian Phalanx had been invincible on the battlefield. It matches Plutarch's assessment that Flamininus had over 26,000 soldiers, and that the opposing forces were roughly the same size. Geography. Livy definitively states the number of captives at 5,000, while Polybius says it was not less than 5,000. Battle of Cynoscephalae, (197 bce ), conclusive engagement of the Second Macedonian War, in which Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus checked the territorial ambitions of Philip V of Macedonia and bolstered Roman influence in the Greek world. But he must be considered, as it is likely he is filling in gaps left by lacunae in Cassius Dio’s Roman History. 7/8000 gesneuvelden en 4/5000 gevangenen. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. The Battle of Cynoscephalae, fought in 197 B.C., ended the second of Rome’s four Macedonian Wars, securing a place in history for the Roman consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus, checking the power of the Antigonid King Philip V, and imposing a brutal peace that laid the groundwork for the Third Macedonian War against Philip’s son Perseus. Before advancing, he left orders for Nicanor to join him as soon as possible. Observing that the arriving Antigonid troops (under Nicanor) were strung out and disorganized, he ordered his right to charge up the ridge, with the elephants in front. Cynoscephalae (Boeotia), a town of ancient Boeotia Cynoscephalae (Thessaly), a town of ancient Thessaly Cynoscephalae Hills (Boeotia), a range of hills in ancient Boeotia Cynoscephalae Hills (Thessaly), a range of hills in ancient Thessaly (where the battles below were fought) With the Karadag range between them, the two armies marched on only generally aware of the other's position, utterly ignorant of the fact that they were just 12KM apart. We confirmed a lot of our suppositions about the battle, and I feel even more confident about the positions I take in the book, and I am hoping to raise new questions in the book that haven’t been addressed before. An additional 800 infantry joined the Romans from Crete. The sources give the following evolution of the battle, in this order: 1.) Rome's First Macedonian War, also fought against Philip V, broke out largely due to Philip’s mistaken belief that the Carthaginian general Hannibal Barca, having just crushed the Romans at Cannae in 216 B.C., would win the Second Punic War. We’re overlooking Lake Plasitras, which is like something out of a fantasy novel, right down to the sheer-faced mountains rising straight from the shore and the butter-colored sun seeming to sink below the surface of the water. The Aetolians were waved off, and Philip was required to relinquish his conquests in the Balkans, Greece and Asia Minor. Attacked from both front and rear, the Antigonid right broke, and a general rout ensued. This file contains text that might be in a language different from your own. The Battle of Cynoscephalae, 197 BC, settled once and for all the age-old dispute of phalanx versus legionary warfare. and the Third Macedonian War of 171 B.C. 1. Galba was replaced by Publius Villius Tappulus, who managed to do even worse, with 2,000 veterans of the Second Punic War under his command mutinying. The roman victory in the battle of Cynoscephalae ( 197 BC ) marked the end of the second macedonian war between Rome and Philip V, king of Macedon. At the battle of Cynoscephalae, known, in military terms, as the "encounter battle", the legions of Flamininus attack the phalanx of Philip V, while they are still in the deployment phase, routing them. It was the site of the victory (197 bc) that ended the Second Macedonian War when the Romans under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeated Philip V of Macedon. The Antigonids were one of the great “Successor” (diadochi) dynasties descended from Alexander the Great’s generals, who squabbled over his empire after his death in 323 B.C. It features in Rome: Total War as a historical battle. This propaganda move worked, and Rome enjoyed a detachment of Greek sympathy from Philip, transferring to Rome. Cynoscephalae is de naam voor een heuvelrug in Thessalië.Deze heuvelrug had zeer hoge toppen, wat erg in het voordeel was voor de Romeinen, aangezien zij in een veel flexibelere formatie vochten dan … was the decisive battle of the First Macedonian War, and was the first of a series of victories won by Roman legions over the Greek phalanx that ended three centuries of Greek dominance on the battlefield.. +44 (0)1865 727022. We know that the Roman camp was located down a slope from the Antigonid position, and the general impression (probably incorrectly) given by the sources is that the Cynoscephalae ridge ran in a single, unbroken line east-west between the two armies. Battle of Cynoscephalae: decisive battle during the Second Macedonian War (200-197 BCE), in which the Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus overcame the Macedonian king Philip V. Philip V of Macedon. Philip’s alliance with Hannibal earned Rome’s lasting enmity, and was resolved in a stalemate with the Peace of Phoenice in 205 B.C. At this point, Philip realized he had no choice. Contact the author and request a version of this image in a different language. Phalangites would deploy sixteen men deep. In addition to a moral victory for Rome, Flamininus killed 2,000 Antigonid troops and captured Philip's baggage. Philip, encouraged by reports that the Romans were on the run, committed what he had of his phalanx—approximately 50% or 8,000 phalangites (including the peltasts)—as the other half under his officer Nicanor were out foraging. During the march there was a heavy rainstorm, and the morning after there was a fog over the hills and fields separating both camps. A lot of good scholarship on Cynoscephalae has been published, perhaps the most famous being a series of pieces by J. Kromayer in 1907, W.K. Unfortunately, Neither Antias nor Claudius' original annals survive in anything or than fragmentary-referential form. The sources are vague on exact deployment, and we're reliant mostly on modern scholarship to make sense of where the armies deployed and where the battle took place. Further reading. Philip retreated to a safe distance to observe the rout. 11.) Philip received his retreating force, and integrated them on the right of his newly arrived troops, and deployed them double-depth (32 ranks deep). [33.18]In every direction alike Philip's fortunes were sinking. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν ) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 55 D2 Cynoscephalae Show place in AWMC's Antiquity À-la-carte , Google Earth , or Pelagios' Peripleo . 10.) Roman C2 was pushed out largely to the centurio level (2 officers roughly equivalent to a modern company-grade officer) who commanded each maniple. Flamininus responds to his covering force's plea for reinforcements, sending 500 cavalry and 2,000 infantry to assist. Despite this, Philip resumed his march, and his troops became confused and disoriented due to heavy fog. The pelte was slung on the arm using a loop called the porpax, and may have included an antilabe, a handle that could be used to grip with the hand to maneuver the shield if the phalangite transitioned to their sword (a backup weapon). Even better, Scotussa was near the road to Palaepharsalus, which meant Philip's army could be in contact with his line of supply to the north, and also perhaps to troops he had garrisoned to the south in Pharsalus. By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our Cookie Policy. Officers or wealthier soldiers may have worn a bronze muscle-cuirass in place of the linothorax. The sources are very clear and almost entirely in lockstep on the composition of the Antigonid army. We know little of how the OOB played out on the ground, but can extrapolate from general knowledge of Roman and Antigonid deployments from this period. These numbers match Livy's statement that the armies were about equal, but conflicts with his statement that the Romans were stronger in cavalry. We received a warm welcome from the Mayor of Fasala, the closest city to the battlefield. Marching blind, Philip sent light troops out to reconnoiter from high ground, at precisely the same time Flamininus sent out "ten squadrons of horse and about a thousand light-armed infantry" (Polybius) with the same purpose. We also know that legions of this period (including the alae "wings" of the socii) had around 300 cavalry attached to them, which would give a grand total of 28,000 infantry and 1,600 cavalry – 29,600 men. That night, a soaking rain fell, resulting in a thick mist the following morning. We have Plutarch’s Life of Flamininus in his Parallel Lives, which gives a moralistic retelling from Rome’s point-of-view, 3 chapters from Livy, with all the attendant concerns about his mistranslations and prioritization of drama over accuracy, and 9 chapters from Polybius, who was a client of the powerful Aemili family, and thus positively disposed toward Rome. This allowed greater tactical flexibility to the Romans. In 201 BC, Rome won the Second Punic War against Carthage. Attitudes quickly soured, however, when Rome occupied "the Fetters of Greece," three pivotal fortresses at Corinth, Chalcis and Demetrias. The situation finally stabilized due to the efforts of the Aetolian cavalry, with the Romans pressed, but holding. The Antigonid phalangites likely wore a complete panoply of approximately forty pounds, including bronze helmet and greaves and a linothorax (linen cuirass) and bore the pelte, a shield approximately two feet in diameter and slightly concave, without an offset rim. Dr Alexander Meeus and Karl Soundy must be thanked for their help in preparing this. Flamininus quickly defeated Philip at the Aous River Gorge, by means of a flanking maneuver. The consul Publius Sulpicius Galba had fought without distinction in the First Macedonian War, and continued his lackluster performance in the second. Battle of Cynoscephalae: | | |For the earlier battle fought here, see |Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC)... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. You must be logged in as a Bronze, Silver or Gold Osprey member to comment on this post. De Slag bij Cynoscephalae was een slag in de Tweede Macedonische Oorlog die gevochten werd tussen Rome en Macedonië. For two hundred years the Macedonian phalanx had been triggered by Philip V of Macedonia s... Mrt 2020 om 16:58 the situation finally stabilized due to heavy fog clash of two rival military:... 22º34 ' E ) 's comments and really ca n't wait for the book allies... Athens—At that point a Roman ally War at length and the battle of Cynoscephalae was een in! Discusses the War at length and the short sword all cookies in accordance with Cookie. Battle is mentioned in Quintus Ennius ' Annales of Greek sympathy from Philip transferring... Army over the ridge to deliver what he believed to have mistranslated Polybius An additional infantry. 204, the Aetolian cavalry, with their attendant crews the short.! Maniples ( handfuls ), with their attendant crews request a version of website... 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